SUBSTANTIAL EDIT (“I need all the help you can give.”)
Last-minute, rushed, thrown together. That’s how texts that need substantial editing and rewriting look, read, and feel. Authors who need a substantial edit are frequently late-stage PhD students who have not yet mastered the art of saying what they want to say in English. Style is absent; ideas are not clear or developed; wording is indirect. As an editor I often have to search for meaning, claim, and even main point. Internal logic and organization have not been double-checked (or even checked at all). Terminology is inconsistent. Lucky for you, this type of editing is my specialty. Be prepared for extensive markup, many comments and questions, and lots of changes. The document you get back, though, will be unbelievably clearer and after a few final changes from you, will be ready to submit.
Example of a substantial edit
Example of a substantial-level edit on one sentence, before and after: